Saturday, May 23, 2020
Mary Jane, Aunt Mary, MJ, Pot, Bud, Purp, Marijuana all nicknames for cannabis has been cultivated since the 1600s. Marijuana accounts for the most commonly used illegal drug. The criminalization of marijuana has resulted in many arrests, drug convictions, and harsh sentences that are truthfully unwarranted. It naturally grows in the ground just like aloe vera and daisies do, but it is not harmful like poison ivy or tobacco. Unlike to cocaine and heroin which are man-made substances that have harmful consequences of their consumption, the severity of the consumption of marijuana is nowhere equal to that. MarijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s severity is often over-exaggerated. The federal government should decriminalize the recreational and medicinal use ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The enforcement of marijuana should be enforced just like every other law is supposed to be enforced. Unbiased. In 1970, Marijuana was classified as a Schedule I drug as per the Controlled Substances Act for it Ã¢â¬Å" not being an accepted medical use in treatment in the United States (CSA Schedules).Ã¢â¬ Medicinal marijuana has a lot of benefits. It helps with cancer, HIV/AIDS, insomnia, depression, and eating disorders. Marijuana has a monumental positive effects of treating cancer. The American Cancer Society states that there has been scientific studies that conclude that THC is helpful in minimizing the rough side effects that originate from chemotherapy. They also have stated that in scientific studies that it helps HIV/AIDS patients with appetite. HIV/AIDS and cancer are illnesses that carry poor prognoses. Marijuana would greatly help these suffering individuals. For example, one prominent side effect of marijuana is that it causes an increase of appetite; people suffering from cancer and AIDS are often severely underweight and lack an appetite The American Public Health Association concluded that in the state of Colorado that it has resulted in the decrease of deaths from pain-kille rs (Recreational Cannabis Legalization and Opioid-Related Deaths in Colorado, 2000Ã¢â¬â2015) Marijuana grows in the ground, naturally (unlike pharmaceutical drugs). Nowadays everything has to be natural for it be good enough for humanShow MoreRelatedLegalization Of Marijuana And Marijuana1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBalyuk March 8, 2016 Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana has a few different names that are commonly used in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society including weed and cannabis. Weed is smoked with joints, bongs, or pipes. Marijuana can also be mixed with foods usually brownies, cookies, and candy which are called edibles. The main chemical responsible for the high feeling is called THC but marijuana also contains over 500 chemicals. The chemical is found in resin produced by the leaves and buds. Ã¢â¬Å"Marijuana is the most commonlyRead MoreThe Legalization Of Marijuana And Marijuana Essay1314 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMarijuana or Cannabis is one of the bused drugs in America and the rest of the world. Interesting accumulating evidence show that the significant negative impact of this drug outweighs the positive effects. However, the medical benefits of the drug seem on the process of chemical compounds as compared to the drug itself. Medical debates show that chemical compound in marijuana are the problem as compared to the plant. The said chemic al compound affects the mental and physical health of the personsRead MoreThe Legalization Of Marijuana For Marijuana2792 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThe legalization of marijuana in America Overview Issue The new events of legalizing marijuana for recreational use has increased controversy in the United States, those against it say it was bad enough before when it was merely allowed for medicinal use and now that these new laws and rules are really infuriating those who are against it. However on the flip side people are also arguing that now that it is allowed for recreational use people it will lessen crime rates, related to selling and buyingRead MoreMarijuana And Its Legalization Of Marijuana1993 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMarijuana And Its Legalization Marijuana, is and will most likely always be the most used illegal drug used in the United States following tobacco and alcohol. This drug , also known as cannabis, is obtained from a plant named Cannabis Sativa, which holds the sought after chemical named delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol, or THC (Barbour 14). This plant, when smoked, causes a high due to how THC interacts with the brain. But nonetheless, this paper is not based off of what marijuana is, but ratherRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLegalization of Marijuana: Benefits and Statistics The topic of legalizing marijuana has been a topic of controversy for quite some time now not only throughout our local streets, but throughout the local and into the state government. The legalization of marijuana is such a controversial topic because some are for it and some are against it. People are for the legalization because of the great uses it has towards medicine, the money that could come from the taxation of legalized marijuana, andRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOn January 1st the states of Colorado and Washington officially began the regulation of legal marijuana sales. Thousands of people from all over the country including tourists from Wisconsin, Ohio, Chicago, and even Georgia lined up out front of dispensaries to make a purchase. Recreational marijuana is being regulated and monitored like alcohol; you must be at least 21 years old to make a purchase. The drug, which is controversial in many statesÃ¢â¬â¢ legislations, is currently l egal for medical useRead MoreLegalization Of Medical Marijuana And Marijuana1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Legalization of Medical Marijuana Name: Institution: Abstract In 1996, California set a pace that would lead to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s debate on medical marijuana and marijuana as a whole by passing the Compassionate Use Act that allowed the use of medical marijuana. Other states have since followed the trend and school of thought, case in point; Alaska, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont andRead MoreThe Legalization of Marijuana628 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesThe Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana, the plant of the cannabis, has been around since the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. Throughout history, marijuana has been used illegally, for both recreational and medical uses. Recently, marijuana has been used for medicinal purposes, like aiding HIV/AIDs patients, healing migraines and controlling nausea caused by chemotherapy. Today, there are currently 21 American states that have legalized medicinal marijuana including two states that have legalized recreational marijuanaRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana2735 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesLegalism and Marijuana People have been smoking marijuana for thousands of years while also using hemp for everything from fabric to make clothes and other items. Unfortunately, Harry J. Anslinger with a bit of power and enough determination decided pot was evil and addictive. The struggle continues to this day to overcome the lies about marijuana (Ã¢â¬Å"Marijuana (Weed) History and FactsÃ¢â¬ ). There are many benefits to legalizing marijuana and the government should take advantage of it. Marijuana is evenRead MoreThe Legalization of Marijuana761 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesLegalization of marijuana should be legislated for medical use across the country. Marijuana does not have a potential good value that it should have, in the eyes of the government and the public. In reality it is actually natural and a effective medicine. The debate about medical marijuana is spreading like a virus across the country. Marijuana can be that one thing to clear off US 13 trillion debt as well as it can decrease crime rates and create more possibility of jobs for people who do not speak
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
In SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ Antigone, the protagonist, Creon, serves as a great example of how recurring themes, such as the realization and recognition of a tragic flaw (hamartia), cause the downfall of the powerful in Greek literature. Sophocles is effective in portraying the concept of hamartia as an essential component in CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall and, based on AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics of a tragic character, able to create a character that can be accurately and easily identified as the significant tragic character in the play. Despite the title of the tragedy, Creon undoubtedly provides greater moral significance and can capture the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention as the central character. CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s significance is clear as he is the successor to OedipusÃ¢â¬â¢ throne in Thebes. His status as king makes him renowned and prosperous. Initially, Creon restrains his respect for his subjects, however, it is clear to them he is not perfect through his pride (hubris). His profound re versal of prosperity is displayed after he struggles to recognize his erroneous judgment (hamartia). Finally, his compassion and apprehension develops into an understanding of his arrogant and destructive nature leading to his redemption. Nevertheless, Creon is left with the burden of the deaths of his family, becoming a shell of misfortune and loneliness. Although CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s actions cannot be labeled as courageous, his character traits pertain greatly to that of a tragic hero. As ruler of Thebes, CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s power lead to his irrational
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In the current scenario, a 64-year-old female patient has suffered from Rheumatoid arthritis ( RA ) and she seemed to demo no betterment despite her current intervention for 6 months. RA is a chronic redness disease and harmonizing to the study of National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ( NICE February 2009 ) RA affects 10000 people each twelvemonth in the UK population. RA is characterised by swelling and painful articulations, usually symmetrical and frequently impacting diarthrodial articulations of custodies and pess [ Firestein GS. We will write a custom essay sample on The Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now , 2003 ] . Although RA normally attacks articulations, it can besides impact other variety meats such as bosom, lung and eyes. The exact pathogenesis of the disease still remains to be discovered. However, autoimmunity activities are believed to be to play a major function in the development of the disease. The unnatural release of inflammatory factors such as interleukins ( IL ) and tissue mortification factor ( TNF ) by the peripheral inflammatory cells such as CD4+ T cells, B cells and macrophages are involved in the patterned advance of RA which leads to inflammatory reaction at the synovial fluid ( SF ) and synovial tissues ( ST ) that line the joint and resulted in joint devastation [ Agarwal et al. , 2005 ] . When the redness progresses into farther phase, portion of the synovial membrane which envelops the SF will develop into pannus which is an inflammatory tissues that farther assail the joint and gristle and may take to joint merger by let go ofing destructive enzymes suc h as collagenase. Harmonizing to Scots Intercollegiate Guidelines Network ( SIGN 48 ) guidelines, RA is normally diagnosed by recovering patient Ã¢â¬Ës medical history and scrutiny on elevated degree of inflammatory markers such as non-specific erythrocyte deposit rate ( ESR ) , C-reactive protein ( CRP ) and a more specific arthritic factor, which is an auto-antibody nowadayss in 80 % of RA patients [ Firestein GS. , 2003 ] . The incidence of RA may non be seen every bit serious as other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplastic disease which recorded a higher morbidity and mortality rate, but one time the disease progresses, it can give a great impact on patient Ã¢â¬Ës day-to-day life. It accounts for 0.8 % of entire planetary Year Lived with Disability ( YLD ) , which is the 31st prima cause of YLD globally [ Symmons et al. , 2006 ] . As a chronic redness disease, RA causes lasting joint harm if it is non treated suitably every bit shortly as possible and a long-time medicine is required to decelerate down the patterned advance of the disease. The joint harm starts at the early phase of disease and worsens increasingly resulted in troubles in patients Ã¢â¬Ë day-to-day work. A simple day-to-day undertaking such as opening a bottle or walking across the room can ensue in great hurting for RA patients. Some patients might even necessitate to discontinue or alter their current oc cupation due to sore articulations. Epidemiology survey showed that RA is associated with decreased life anticipation and increased mortality [ Anthony et al. , 2003 ] . As RA develops, the disease finally invades the bone around the joint and may take to osteoporosis due to inflammatory activities. Furthermore, RA intervention utilizing corticoid besides increases the hazard of osteoporosis due to depletion of Ca and increase loss of bone mass [ Kelman et al. , 2005 ] . Besides that, merely like other redness diseases, RA patients can confront anemic jobs where red blood cells production is inhibited during redness. After the importance of early intervention of DMARDs has been recognised, the old Ã¢â¬Å" intervention pyramid Ã¢â¬ used in RA which started off with diagnostic intervention utilizing anodynes such as NSAIDs has been reviewed. The Ã¢â¬Å" intervention pyramid Ã¢â¬ describes the usage of anodynes in the early phase of disease to alleviate hurting and merely starts DMARDs when the disease develops into more advanced phase where NSAIDs can no longer command the hurting and redness. However, several surveies have shown that protection of articulation from harm utilizing DMARDs should be started every bit shortly as possible to supply better patients Ã¢â¬Ë forecast and continue patient functional ability [ Egmose et al. , 1995 ; van der Heide et al. , 1996 ] . Therefore both NICE and SIGN guidelines suggest the early usage of DMARDs to command and detain RA symptoms after diagnosing of RA is confirmed. There is no definite intervention for RA as patients may react otherwise to the assortment picks of RA pharmacological therapy. Normally RA patients would be started with the most normally used DMARDs and reviewed invariably for drugs effectiveness until symptoms are well-controlled by the DMARDs therapy. Further change in the intervention needs to be done if no satisfactory response is achieved. As in this instance survey, the female patient has failed to react to six-month intervention of sulfasalazine, which is one of the commonly used DMARDs in commanding RA. Thus an option should be sought every bit shortly as possible to forestall major joint devastation. Treatment Harmonizing to NICE guidelines 2009, it is stated that if RA patient does non react to the first DMARDs intervention, the dosage of the drug should be reviewed and focused to supply an effectual and suited dosage for the patient before a 2nd option of DMARDs is sought. In the current scenario, the patient had failed to react to six-month therapy of SLS, it is assumed that the dosage of SLS had been adjusted to the possible maximal bound but still demo no benefit in the patient. Thus, farther intervention would be focused on seeking for an alternate DMARDs. DMARDs are drugs from different categories that are grouped together due to their similarity in decelerating down the patterned advance of RA and understating joint devastation caused by RA besides commanding the symptoms. The normally used DMARDs include sulfasalazine ( SLS ) , amethopterin ( MTX ) , gold, Cuprimine, anti-malarial, azathioprine, leflunomide and cyclosporine. SLS and MTX are most preferable in clinical pattern due to their favourable toxicity profiles although intramuscular gold and Cuprimine had shown similar effectivity in handling RA [ Aletaha et al. , 2003 ; Felson et al. , 1990 ; Capell et al. , 1993 ] . MTX and SLS were considered to be safer at usage as it was shown that there was no important difference in the incidence of side-effects reported between high and low dose intervention of the drugs [ Aletaha et al. , 2003 ] . Since the patient has failed to react to SLS, MTX would normally be the following option in head. However, there is a pick to do whether t o utilize MTX in combination with SLS or replace SLS with MTX as monotherapy. DMARDs combination has been recommended in NICE guidelines for early RA intervention, but more clinical groundss need to be sought for the usage of combination in established RA, which is pictured in the current scenario as the patient has been suffered from RA for more than 6 months and immune to SLS therapy. Three surveies were found to compare the usage of MTX monotherapy and dual-therapy with SLS in patients unresponsive to SLS. Among the three, two were randomised controlled tests ( RCT ) while one was non-randomised experimental test [ Haagsma et al. , 1994 ; Capell et al. , 2007 ; Schipper et al. , 2009 ] The first RCT was carried out in 1994 which merely included a little figure of patients ( n=40 ) based on a single-observer method over 24 hebdomads while a longer continuance ( gt ; 18 months ) of double-blind placebo-controlled survey with a larger survey group ( n=165 ) was adopted in the 2nd RCT in 2007. Despite the difference in the survey features, both RCTs concluded that MTX-SLS double therapy had a greater efficaciousness in commanding symptoms over MTX monotherapy in SLS-resistant patients without important addition in toxicity. However, although the 2nd RCT had shown important clinical benefits for combination therapy compared to the usage of monotherapy, no important a dvantage was seen in radiological results or functional disablement. The 3rd survey was a recent test published in 2009 investigated 230 patients who were immune to SLS intervention utilizing the similar intervention magnitude as the old surveies to measure the drug efficaciousness. This test was carried out for more than 15 old ages and concluded that that both options provided similar consequence. The disagreement was believed to be caused by the deficiency of control group in the ulterior test which might lend to biased consequences and inconsistent usage of other drugs such as corticoids in different tests which might misdirect the reading of drug efficaciousness. Besides efficaciousness and toxicity, cost of intervention is the following of import factor to be considered in taking the right intervention for the patient. However, really few surveies were done comparing the cost-effectiveness of different DMARDs because RA is non every bit prevailing as other major diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and it does non normally result in immediate decease. The more recent cost-effectiveness analysis on DMARDs was done in Thailand from the social point of position where the costs included a direct cost and indirect cost [ Osiri et al. , 2007 ] . In order to enable numerical comparing, the cost-effectiveness of the therapies was measured utilizing the Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio ( ICER ) which is the entire cost in US dollar needed to accomplish one unit of ( HAQ ) Health Assessment Questionnaire, which comprised of 20 inquiries on patients Ã¢â¬Ë self-report functional and disablement position. The ICER of each intervention was compa red against the anti-malarial monotherapy as anti-malarial was recognised as the cheapest and least efficacious DMARDs available. Comparing among the sum of 152 RA patients, it was found that MTX and SLS therapy recorded a three times lower ICER compared to MTX monotherapy, which explained that the double therapy was less dearly-won and more effectual compared to the monotherapy ( US $ 625 versus US $ 2061 per one unit of HAQ mark ) . However, this survey was non specifically directed to SLS-resistant patients. Therefore, merely a comparative comparing can be made on the cost for the current scenario. The following option of intervention for the current patient is the usage of three-base hit therapy which uses MTX, SLS and an anti-malarial. It was shown in a biennial, prospective randomised test on 180 patients that the ternary therapy had given a better curative efficaciousness over the dual- ( MTX and SLS or MTX and anti-malarial ) and MTX monotherapy irrespective of the drugs given in the early RA intervention [ Calguneri et al. , 1999 ] . Again, the incidence of inauspicious effects did non increase significantly with the addition in figure of drugs. The enhanced benefit by adding an anti-malarial agent to MTX intervention had further strengthened the grounds shown antecedently by a long-run followup survey on patients who were treated with ternary therapy. It was shown in the old survey that patients who had failed to react to at least one DMARD and treated with ternary therapy had shown continued betterment with minimum toxicity after 3 old ages compared to MTX monotherapy a nd SLS-hydroxychloroquine therapy [ OÃ¢â¬â¢Dell et al. , 1999 ] . Addition of anti-malarial agent to MTX had been shown to execute better than MTX-SLS combination, which proposed an implicit in interactive activity of anti-malarial and MTX when they are used together likely due to heighten MTX bioavailability by anti-malarial [ OÃ¢â¬â¢Dell et al. , 2002 ; Carmichael et al. , 2002 ] . In footings of the intervention cost, based on the same cost-effectiveness survey mentioned above, ternary therapy recorded a lower ICER ( US $ 1222 per one unit of HAQ mark ) than MTX monotherapy, but about twice every bit high as the ICER of MTX-SLS therapy. Other than utilizing the traditional DMARDs, the freshly developed biological anti-rheumatic drugs are besides being studied for SLS immune patients. Since RA involves a great trade of cytokines activities, specific cytokines blockers have been investigated to stamp down or modify the redness procedure. The most normally used biological agents include infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab which target the tissue mortification factor, TNF-IÃ ± , which is one of the chief cytokines released by macrophage that farther induces the release of other cytokines which are responsible for the redness. NICE guidelines emphasized that TNF-IÃ ± inhibitors can merely be used when the patient has failed to react to intervention of at least two DMARDs including amethopterin. However, Combe et Al. had tried a different attack where Enbrel has been used and investigated in patients specifically having SLS intervention but still have ailment of active RA without affecting MTX [ Combe et al. , 2006 ] . It was found that etanercept monotherapy or in combination with SLS had given better betterment in American College of Rheumatology ( ACR ) standards compared to patients treated with SLS entirely. There was no important difference in the efficaciousness in the etanercept monotherapy and combination group. However, there was a significantly higher incidence rate of side-effects such as concern, sickness and astheny in the combination group while a higher hazard of infections and injection side reactions were recorded in patients with etanercept entirely. Besides that, as a biological drug, TNF-IÃ ± inhibitors can non get away the fact of doing serious inauspicious effects such as malignance, demyelination and increased susceptibleness to infections like TB [ Nahar et al. , 2003 ] . However when the ratio of efficaciousness over toxicity is concerned, a meta-analysis showed that TNF inhibitors have a higher ratio than gold and sulfasalazine [ Ravindran et al. , 2008 ] . Again, whe n cost is concerned, etanercept intervention, as expected is much expensive compared to DMARDs, where the cost was shown to be more than twice higher than the most expensive DMARD available, cyclosporin [ Jobanputra et al. , 2002 ] . TREATMENT RECOMMENDATION Comparing the four options available, MTX monotherapy, MTX-SLS dual-therapy, ternary therapy and etanercept therapy, MTX-SLS dual-therapy seems to be the best intervention for the current patient as it is supported by groundss for its lower cost with comparable efficaciousness in SLS immune patients. It might non be the most effectual intervention compared to treble therapy, but it is ever advisable to understate the figure of drugs used in a patient to forestall unneeded inauspicious effects or drug interactions. However, there is still possibility that the patient may still be unresponsive to the dual-therapy as there is no definite warrant on the action of the therapy on every RA patient and the possibility of developing immune to MTX. Thus, the National Clinical Guidelines recommends monthly reappraisal of CRP ( C-Reactive Protein ) , an inflammatory marker and other cardinal constituents of disease activity such as DAS 28 ( Disease Activity Score based on 28 articulations ) unti l the disease is controlled by the given intervention to a degree antecedently discussed and agreed by the patients. If there is still no satisfactory respond, farther change in the therapy needs to be done such as sing the ternary therapy or etanercept therapy. Besides giving the slow-acting disease modifying drugs, SIGN 48 guidelines suggest the usage of intra-articular injection of corticoids to give rapid diagnostic alleviation before the oncoming of the new DMARDs therapy. Oral corticoids are non preferred to be used as a long-run intervention as it can do serious inauspicious consequence on bone mass and GI systems and it merely shows benefit in the early intervention of active RA [ Saag et al. , 1995 ; Kirwan et al. , 1995 ] If injection is non possible, so low dosage of unwritten corticoid is used in a shortest continuance possible [ Laan et al. , 1995 ] . For the diagnostic hurting control on top of DMARDs, mentioning to SIGN 48 guidelines, whenever possible, simple anodynes such as paracetamol are preferred over NSAIDs due to set up side-effects peculiarly GI annoyance. If simple anodynes are non powerful plenty to alleviate the hurting, a low dose NSAIDs such as isobutylphenyl propionic acid or more selective Cyclooxygenase ( Cox-2 ) inhibitors such as etoricoxib can be prescribed for the shortest continuance possible. When NSAIDs or Cox-2 inhibitors have to be used, coincident usage of GI protective medicine such as proton-pump inhibitors should be considered for aged and patients with history of GI ulcerations. Both NICE and SIGN guidelines recommend that dosage of NSAIDs should be reviewed and reduced once patients show equal response to DMARDs. In drumhead, the patient should be continued with SLS, at the same clip, added with MTX as the combined DMARDs therapy. In add-on, intra-articular or short-course unwritten corticoid should be commenced as a Ã¢â¬Å" span therapy Ã¢â¬ before the oncoming of action of the new DMARDs therapy. For diagnostic control, if paracetamol is non equal to relief hurting, NSAIDs such as diclofenac together with a proton pump inhibitor such as Prilosec can be used unless it is contraindicated in the patient, so a Cox-2 inhibitor such as etoricoxib should be used. Besides that, patient would be put on a monthly monitoring to reexamine the effectivity of the new therapy. How to cite The Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Discuss about theContemporary Hospitality Issues for Tourism and Borders. Answer: Introduction The hotel industry always represents the service profession and thus hotel can be said as a market where both demand and supply are present. Hotel provides shelter, food and various kinds of services to the people who visits and stays there (Wachowiak, 2016). However a lot of modern implementation can be done to describe hotel industry in detail. The main topics that will be discussed include the different issues faced by the hotel industry. This may include the problems faced by the management and employees as well as the problems faced by the customers of the hotel. The thesis statement of the hotel is as follows; Issues faced by the hotel The reason for the problems that the employees and the customers faces The solutions to such problems Body of the essay Key Area 1: The topic is Salary Gap between hotel and other industry. The salary gap between the hotel and other industries has been the main concern for the different types of industries as because in order to be creative the founders fails to pay heed to the salary demand of the workers. This leads to problems as because the employees seem to be reluctant to work which leads to organizational inefficiency (Aragon-Correa, Martin-Tapia de la Torre-Ruiz, 2015). The reluctance of the workers to work in the given circumstances is mainly due to the failure of the management to identify the demands of the workers. The management must be active enough to get a clear understanding of the workers. Key Area 2: The next Key issue is the Lack of Systematic Management System. As mentioned earlier the management of the hotels is reluctant enough and fails to understand the basic demands of the employees, which in turn leads to the organizational failure of the hotels. If the management of the hotels functions properly then the staffs will be led in a correct way (Deery Jago, 2015). Thus it is important for the management to function properly. The absence of the managerial skills makes the employees frustrated as the employment opportunities and chances for growth gets limited. Key Area 3: The Next Key issue is The lack of Promotional Activities. As mentioned earlier the absence of proper promotional activities is a major negative issue that hampers the proper growth of the hotels and makes the management of the hotel vulnerable to internal threats. This includes threats like constant change of employees and the failure of the management to retain loyal and trusted employees (Ryan, 2015). Conclusion The following plan has been arranged and highlighted in a proper format that clearly makes the way for a great essay. The plan has included three of the most important topics that are faced by the organization in the modern times. The thorough analysis of the plan will be essential to construct the essay in a proper and flawless manner. References Aragon-Correa, J. A., Martin-Tapia, I., de la Torre-Ruiz, J. (2015). Sustainability issues and hospitality and tourism firms strategies: Analytical review and future directions.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,27(3), 498-522. Deery, M., Jago, L. (2015). Revisiting talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,27(3), 453-472. Ryan, C. (2015). Trends in hospitality management research: a personal reflection.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,27(3), 340-361. Wachowiak, H. (Ed.). (2016).Tourism and borders: contemporary issues, policies and international research. Routledge.
Sunday, March 22, 2020
THE AUDUBON ZOO, 1993 The Audubon Zoo is located in New Orleans, Louisiana and is a 501(3)(c) non-profit organization. In 1914 the Audubon Commission was created to maintain and develop Audubon Park. In 1919 the Audubon Institute was established as the parent agency. Over the next several decades many changes would occur including the addition of a monkey cage, mammal cage and a deer paddock. Louisiana school children purchased the first elephant in 1924 and shortly thereafter an aquarium and sea lion pool was added. Through the Great Depression of the 1930s and 1940s the zoo was barely able to keep its doors openand in the 1950s it was labeled an animal Ã¢â¬Å"ghettoÃ¢â¬ by the media. In 1970 the U. S. Humane Society insisted the zoo be brought to industry standards. In the early 1970s the Commission worked closely with Mr. Ron Forman, City Hall Liaison for Audubon Park, to pass a special referendum that generated close to $2 million in bonds. We will write a custom essay sample on The Audobon Zoo or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These funds were the beginning of the ZooÃ¢â¬â¢s restoration project that enabled it to expand from 19 acres to over 55 acres. Volunteers at the Zoo formally became known as Friends of the Zoo. By the 1980s the Zoohad received accreditation from the American Zoo and Aquarium Association and was noted as one of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s top-rated zoological parks. And in 1989, Friends of the Zoo became known as Audubon Nature Institute where it remains today. Today, the zoo combines research laboratories with acres of pristine natural habitat where rare and endangered animals roam and reproduce (ANI, 2009). The Audubon Nature InstituteÃ¢â¬â¢s mission to servesone purpose: Celebrating the Wonders of Nature. Its facilities carry on this mission through the Audubon Park, Audubon Zoo, Woldenberg Riverfront Park, Audubon Aquarium of the Americas, Freeport-McMoRan Audubon Species Survival Center, Entergy IMAX Theatre, Audubon Louisiana Nature Center, Audubon Center for Research of Endangered Species, Audubon Wilderness Park, Audubon Insectarium and Audubon Nature Institute Foundation. Additional opportunities for the Zoo include technological advances in animal breeding and new interactive computer programs that allow visitors to become educated about the animals history, environment, special characteristics, feeding and origination. Educational programs for both children and adults are offered through visitor programs, school field trips, outreach programs, and educatorÃ¢â¬â¢s resources. A very real threat to the Zoo is the unpredictability of Mother Nature. New Orleans is located on the Gulf of Mexico and hurricanes cause a threat to coastal areas during the summer and fall seasons. Tourists and residents will be deterred from visiting the Zoo during inclement weather and will have a negative impact on admissions revenue for an undetermined amount of time. A SWOT analysis is essential in evaluating the market potential of the Zoo. In areas of strength; new attractions will draw repeat customers and with the educational activities offered year round there is a limitless supply of Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ school children as they grow and develop their interest in the world around them. The rehabilitation center for injured animals is a favorite of the public and should be marketed accordingly. And, the ZooÃ¢â¬â¢s Center for Research of Endangered Species has been recognized as Ã¢â¬Å"top notchÃ¢â¬ and as such also holds considerable value in marketing. The one major weakness of the Zoo is its absolute necessity to depend on donations from a generous public. Unfortunately, not all funds that are pledgedare actually received by the Zoo and this creates challenges in budgeting from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year. In a poor economy when the public are forced to worry about basic survival needsdonations will sharply decline. While the Zoo enjoys a heavy supply of volunteers, which creates a positive image to the community, they cannot be held to the same standards as paid employees. Volunteers are more apt to come and go as they will and this leaves the Zoo at the mercy of over worked, understaffed employees. A financial analysis of the Zoo reveals that it has done very well and that at the end of 1982 it was virtually self-sufficient. Improved efficiency in the area of operations was the first step towards this turnaround. The Zoo is entering a maturity stage and should look for opportunities to reduce its employment costs, non-value added programs and departments, administrative supplies and expenses associated with daily overhead. Media exposure can be highly expensive and as a non-profit entity the Zoo should take advantage of as much free exposure as possible. Press releases about new acquisitions, programs, animals, and the rehabilitation center should be sent to the media on a continuing basis. News articles with information about the different animals and the lands they originate from could become a regular travel guide feature of the local print media. Holding special events for a targeted segment of the public could draw additional revenue; live music on the green or in the park, Sunday afternoon Jazz Concert, or birthday parties with the special childÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite animal as the thememay stimulate growth in revenue. Another idea would be to consider an Ã¢â¬Å"adopt-an-animalÃ¢â¬ program. Local schools, businesses or individuals could agree to Ã¢â¬Å"adoptÃ¢â¬ an animal and provide monetary support through fund-raising or in-kind donations. Offering a yearly pass for residents at a discounted rate may seem contradictory to the idea of increased revenue but, if the community felt that they could visit the Zoo at any time without paying an entrance fee they may be more apt to spend discretionary dollars on hats, tee-shirts, sweat-shirts or other accessories, concession stand items and impulse buying of souvenirs. Key factors in bringing a successful turnaround of the Zoo begins with the original bond of $2 million and the total of a $5. 6 million development program that was created by the Audubon Park Commission. These funds permitted expansion of the Zoo to its present 48 acres allowing the area to be divided into geographic sections that featured the differentiation of the animals. Next was the implementation of admission charges to generate revenue and help off-set the few donations the Zoo received. The creation of the group Friends of the Zoo, which managed guidelines for the many topics and programs available also offered the edZOOcators conductededucational programs. The implementation of fundraising through new and interesting events and finally, the continuous expansion of programs and updating of other programs helped to create the ZooÃ¢â¬â¢s success.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Customer-letter writing for tax professionals Customer-letter writing for tax professionals When the naturalist Charles Darwin outlined natural selection, he almost certainly didnt have business people in mind. But his idea, that the species best suited to their environments are the ones who survive, has never been truer in the world of work. Competition for clients can be fierce, and never more so than now. The firms most able to meet their clients needs are often the most successful. One effective way to do this is to make your written communication client-centred. It doesnt have to be complicated simply pre-empting client phone calls and emails with a letter, for example. In fact, well-written, aptly timed letters are one of the best ways to provide good customer service. They help to make your clients feel that you really care about them and their businesses. The trouble is though that too many letters get it wrong. They unwittingly offend the client, dont take responsibility for misunderstandings and talk around issues as though they were having a debate. Clients need you to be the expert; provide the right figures; be honest when you dont know the answers and consistent about the information they need to provide you with. In short, they need to know their needs come first. With the dealings of financial institutions increasingly under public scrutiny, trust is a sought-after quality. So, make sure that it shines through in your written communication because integrity and accuracy will help the numbers add up for your clients. Just SCRAP it Good letters and emails have a clear structure and a specific goal in mind. The aim is to make youre your readers know why you are writing to them and what you want them to do. The SCRAP formula can help you to write clearly. The acronym stands for: situation, complication, resolution, action, politeness. Situation Begin by explaining the situation (or where they are). By doing this your reader will realise you understand and empathise with them. Complication Introduce the idea that theres a problem (why they cant stay there) they need to solve or a request they need to fulfil. Resolution State your resolution to the problem or request. Your reader will probably be relieved that youre offering a ready-made way of fixing things. Action Suggest what action the reader can or should take. In some cases, this will be what further action you are going to take. Make sure that this follows on logically from the resolution. Politeness Finally, end with a polite sign-off. Like any good recipe, you dont have to follow this formula to a tee. Some client correspondence will be so simple and straightforward that theres no problem to resolve. You just need to decide whats happened and what you want the reader to do about it. Top writing tips Get active Use the active rather than the passive voice. So write we found a mistake in your tax return rather than a mistake was found in your tax return. Keep it short and simple Good sentences contain no more than 15-20 words. Long flowery phrases are difficult to follow and can even breed distrust. Clear, plain writing suggests that there is nothing to hide. Always choose a simple word over a complication one. And remember that you can never have too many full stops! Clarify your main message If youre having difficulty figuring out what you really want your letter to say write down the words; who?, what?, where?, when? and why? at the top of a piece of paper. Use these headings to brainstorm the contents of your document. Ditch the management lingo If youve been immersed in the business world for some time, its easy to start writing in management-speak. So, prune carefully through your written work to ensure that youre not unwittingly lapsing into the types of language that would make David Brent in sitcom, The Office proud. Metaphors such as raising the bar and picking the low hanging fruit sound more like a tropical limbo challenge than references to taxation matters. While generic phrases such as working in close partnership with and after due consideration may make your clients think that your letters arent tailored to their industry or even to them. Dont add redundant words, such as pre in pre-prepare and forward in forward planning. All planning goes forwards and you cant prepare until youve prepared. The extra words dilute your message and can make the reader think that your advice is full of padding and waffle too. Remember, clients will thank you for being short and concise, as it will save them time. Brevity can be a courtesy. Case study Whether it is tax, technology or telecommunications; these letter writing principles work in any industry. Heres how letter-writing skills training transformed the customer services of a major insurance provider. The problem: The customer services department wanted to reduce the number of second-stage complaints they were receiving so they asked Emphasis to help the complaints team make its letters more customer-centred. The solution: We helped the team to fully identify the issues and facts behind the letters from complainants. We instructed participants about importance of structure in letters and then analysed the types of language, intentions and assumptions used in their standard responses. We enabled them to write letters in an easily accessible style. The benefits: Each delegate had a one-to-one coaching clinic six weeks later, where they submitted a post-training writing sample. All had progressed in structure and style. The team was so motivated by the course that they now talk about Emphasising their letters. Robert Ashton is Chief Executive of Emphasis.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Evaluate how domestic and regional factors limited Japan's abilities to play more definitive security roles in East Asia. Asse - Research Paper Example There are some signs that this is now changing, but the Japan-US military alliance will continue to be the defining feature of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy for the foreseeable future. Article 9 Following the Second World War, Japan officially renounced its right to declare war, which has left the country in a unique situation, somewhat removed from the life of a Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ nation state. The Japanese military is restricted by Article 9 of its constitution, which states that Japan has forfeited its right as a nation to declare war, and will not recognize force as a valid means of settling disputes between nations. As a result, Japan does not officially keep its armed forces for any purpose except self-defense. Article 9 ends: Ã¢â¬ËThe right of belligerency of the state will not be recognizedÃ¢â¬â¢. Japan does maintain a large military force, and has one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest military budgets, but this is justified as being purely in a defensive capacity, and unt il the past two decades, Japan did not even contribute personnel to peacekeeping missions sanctioned by the United Nations (UN). The defense budget is nearly $50 billion, approximately 1% of Japanese GDP, and it spends a further $2 billion annually on supporting American forces based in Japan1. Japanese forces are controlled tightly by civilian politicians, and the first time they were allowed to operate outside of the country was in a peacekeeping capacity in Cambodia in 1992-3. Article 9 effectively prevents Japan from taking a particularly active military role in international affairs, and for many Japanese, who are broadly pacifist, the horrors of the Second World War remain a powerful reason not to abolish Article 9 from the constitution2. As Kingston put it, Ã¢â¬ËThe US actually insisted on the insertion of Article 9 in the Japanese Constitution [as part of postwar peace negotiations], but has regretted it ever sinceÃ¢â¬â¢3. The United States would prefer Japan to take a m ore active role in attaining their shared security goals, so that it would not have to shoulder the absolute burden of operations in East Asia, including making considerable provision for JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s own defense. Kingston argues that, despite strong popular support for Article 9 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËFor many Japanese, it is a point of pride that JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s Constitution embraces pacifism, a powerful symbolic break with the wartime past and an ongoing guaranteeÃ¢â¬â¢, it has Ã¢â¬Ëdiminished sway over government security policyÃ¢â¬â¢4. As we shall see, Japan has indeed circumvented the provisions of its constitution to deploy its forces abroad in recent years. The Japan-US Alliance Following the Treaty of San Francisco, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy has essentially been guided by its close relationship with the United States. Japan has been able to leave international issues to the United States, and concentrated mainly on economic recovery and development, Ã¢â¬Ëwith relative ly little concern (and cost) for its own defenseÃ¢â¬â¢5. The Alliance has had benefits for the US also. Keen to expand its practical influence right across the Pacific in the aftermath of the Second World War, Japan, as an archipelago right off the Asian mainland, offered an Ã¢â¬Ëunsinkable aircraft carrierÃ¢â¬â¢ from which to pursue this policy. Bases in Japan have helped with deployments against Communist forces in Korea and Vietnam, as well as other conflicts in the region. This alliance is boosted by the large volume and value of trade between the US and Japan.